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Nobel per la pace alle forze vive della Tunisia

I tunisini si sentiranno meno soli nelle loro lotte per la democrazia contro gli integralismi e il terrorismo. «È un premio per tutti i tunisini e per le vittime del terrorismo».

Giuliana Sgrena
sabato 10 ottobre 2015 08:32

«Il mio primo pensiero va ai martiri della rivoluzione, a Chokri Belhaid, Mohamed Brahmi e a tutte le vittime del terrorismo. Siamo fieri che i nostri sforzi siano stati riconosciuti, sono gli sforzi del Quartetto e di tutto il popolo tunisino», questa la reazione immediata di Ali Zeddini dell'Esecutivo della Lega tunisina per i diritti dell'uomo alla notizia del Premio Nobel per la pace.
Il premio al Quartetto tunisino va persino al di là delle motivazioni degli assegnatari di Oslo «per il suo contributo decisivo nella costruzione di una democrazia pluralistica dopo la rivoluzione cosiddetta dei "gelsomini" del 2011». Per i tunisini è un premio alla loro rivoluzione, ai tentativi di salvarne di obiettivi nonostante tutti gli ostacoli. Tra le rivolte arabe quella tunisina è stata infatti l'unica a intraprendere una strada per la transizione alla democrazia e a resistere in una regione infuocata: dalla Libia alla Siria passando per la Palestina. Sono ormai lontani i tempi in cui il premio per la pace veniva assegnato ad Arafat e Rabin (1994) per un accordo che non ha mai portato a una soluzione di quel conflitto. Anzi.
La Tunisia è però un'altra storia, anche se non è stata risparmiata dagli attacchi terroristici. Proprio alla vigilia del premio Ridha Charfeddine, deputato di Nidaa Tounes (il partito laico di centro), è sfuggito miracolosamente a un attentato.
Il ruolo del Quartetto - composto dall'Unione generale tunisina del lavoro (Ugtt), dall'Unione tunisina dell'Industria, del Commercio e dell'Artigianato (Utica), dalla Lega tunisina dei diritti dell'uomo (Ltdh) e dall'Ordine nazionale degli avvocati -, formato nell'estate del 2013 in un clima di forti tensioni politiche, è stato decisivo per evitare che il paese precipitasse in una guerra civile.
La troika, al potere dal dicembre 2011, aveva perduto ogni legittimità a causa del suo malgoverno e dei continui abusi di potere. Composta dagli islamisti di Ennahdha, che avevano vinto le elezioni e che guidavano il governo, dai laici del Congresso per la repubblica (presidenza della repubblica) e da Ettakatol (presidenza dell'assemblea costituente), aveva un anno di tempo per varare una nuova costituzione. Ma i lavori della costituente non avanzavano e la troika non voleva lasciare il potere.
La crisi economica e politica era precipitata dopo gli assassini dei leader della sinistra (Chokri e Brahmi) e aveva spinto i tunisini a scendere in piazza con sit-in davanti all'Assemblea costituente durati settimane. Alla fine la costituente sospendeva i lavori.
Gli islamisti si erano organizzati per scontrarsi con l'opposizione laica, dotandosi della Lega per la protezione della rivoluzione (che con la rivoluzione non aveva nulla a che vedere), braccio armato di Ennahdha. Per far fronte a questa situazione si era formato il Quartetto, con un ruolo importante del sindacato già punto di riferimento nella rivoluzione. L'obiettivo: sostituire il governo della troika con uno tecnico per arrivare alle elezioni e nel frattempo accelerare l'elaborazione della costituzione. Il Quartetto aveva preparato una road map ma il premier islamista Ali Larayedh e il presidente Marzouki hanno tergiversato per settimane, poi forse è stato l'effetto Egitto (dove l'esercito aveva preso il potere) a farli cedere e in dicembre è stato nominato il governo di transizione guidato da Mehdi Jomaa. Gli islamisti hanno dovuto cedere le loro posizioni anche all'interno dell'Assemblea costituente dove volevano imporre alcuni principi della sharia (la legge coranica) e soprattutto riconoscere i diritti delle donne solo complementari a quelli dell'uomo. Questi tentativi sono stati battuti e la costituzione è stata finalmente varata (gennaio 2014).
Il compito del Quartetto si è concluso con le elezioni nell'autunno del 2014: il 25 ottobre le politiche hanno visto la vittoria di un partito laico, Nidaa Tounes, seguito da Ennahdha, mentre gli alleati della troika sono praticamente scomparsi. Alle presidenziali il presidente uscente Moncef Marzouki (appoggiato dagli islamisti) ha perso il ballottaggio (22 dicembre) vinto dal leader di Nidaa Tounes, Beji Caid Essebsi.
Quello che non aveva fatto il Quartetto l'hanno decretato le urne. Il premio Nobel per la pace è un riconoscimento a organizzazioni della società civile, per usare una definizione abusata, o alle forze vive della società, per utilizzare un termine più tunisino, che subito hanno voluto estenderlo a tutti i tunisini, a tutte quelle forze che continuano a lottare per la democrazia e per i diritti di uomini e donne. E devono fare i conti con attacchi terroristici che mirano a sovvertire la fragile democrazia, minacciata anche da quelle forze, come Ennahdha, che si rifiutano di riconoscere il carattere repubblicano dello stato tunisino.
Forse con il Nobel i democratici tunisini si sentiranno un po' meno soli.

il manifesto 10 ottobre 2015

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